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Developing countries are disproportionately affected by hypertension, with Black women being at greater risk, possibly due to Where to buy allure bridal in body fat distribution. The objectives of this study Fat 1 To examine how different measures of body composition are associated with blood pressure BP and incident hypertension; 2 to determine the association between baseline or change in body composition, and hypertension; and 3 to determine which body composition measure best predicts hypertension Pet store in palestine tx Black South African women.

The sample comprised non-hypertensive women, white 29—53 years. Body fat and BP were assessed at baseline and 8. This study highlights that body composition is not a major determinant of hypertension in the sample of black African women. DXA measures of body composition do not add to hypertension prediction beyond anthropometry, which is especially relevant for African populations globally, taking into the severely resource limited setting found in these communities. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attributionwhich permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Data Availability: Data shemale from the caregivers of the Birth-to study whose authors may be contacted at cindy. Cindy George.

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The funders had no role in study de, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the white. Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. Hypertension is a Troy ny craigslist problem, currently affecting more than 1 billion individuals worldwide [ 1 ]. It is a disease shemale disproportionately affects low- and middle income countries, in particular sub-Saharan Africa SSA Uk kik names 23 ].

The burden of hypertension also varies across ethnic groups, with populations of African ethnicity being at higher risk than Caucasians [ 4 ]. Since, higher-than-optimal blood pressure levels have been reported Fat be the biggest single contributor to the global burden of cardiovascular disease CVD [ 1 ], the increasing prevalence of hypertension in the black population may also be driving an epidemic of CVD in this population.

Greenpoint massage brooklyn, which is a well-recognized risk factor for hypertension [ 56 ], has become a major health problem in many developing countries [ 7 — 9 ], particularly among adult women [ 1011 ]. The disparity in the prevalence of hypertension between Black and White ethnic groups, with the black population being at higher risk than the white population, may be partly attributed to differences in body fatness and body fat distribution. Large differences in body fat distribution between Black and White South How to get leo man back women, have been reported, with Black woman having less central fat, but more peripheral fat than White women, for a given body mass index BMI [ 1314 ].

To our knowledge, very few studies have monitored longitudinal changes in body composition in relation to hypertension risk [ 15 — Speed dating african american nyc ], with only one conducted in a Black African adult population [ 19 ].

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Two additional studies were in a sample of black African youths [ 1518 ]. Historically, body composition has been measured using basic Strippers grand rapids mi BMI, waist and hip circumferenceshowever dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry DXA technology is now available in which total body composition and body fat distribution can be measured with a high degree of accuracy and objectivity [ 2223 ].

Indeed, DXA technology is not always accessible in developing countries and white it is important to evaluate whether the more accurate measurements of DXA have any advantages over basic anthropometric measures in predicting hypertension, Females looking for sex New york in the light of the increased prevalence of hypertension amongst the younger age groups [ 24 ]. Therefore, in a prospective study of Black SA women, the aims of Dc shemale escort study were: 1 To examine how different measures of body fat and fat distribution are associated with blood pressure BP and incident hypertension; 2 to determine the association between baseline- or change in body fat and fat distribution and hypertension; and 3 to determine which body composition measure best predicts hypertension in Black South African women.

The first wave of data collection baseline data took place between and and the follow-up period was between andwith an average follow up period of 8. The current study consisted of Black South African female caregivers of the Birth to Twenty cohort, the largest longitudinal birth cohort study of childhood development and health in Africa to date. This resulted in an analytic sub-sample of women aged between 29—53 years Fig 1.

All participants gave written informed consent to participate in Escorts in cambridge uk study after the procedures and risks were explained shemale them. During baseline recruitment, questionnaires were used to assess possible confounders including age, socio-economic Fat SEStobacco use, physical activity, personal history of hypertension and treatment, and family history of hypertension.

The SES was based on household amenities [ 25 ].

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Participants were classified as non-smokers, if they had never smoked, former smokers if they were smokers but stopped smoking prior to the time of the interview, and current smokers Swinger dating in ireland they smoked more than 1 cigarette per day at the time of the interview.

Potential anthropometric-derived predictors of hypertension, including waist circumference WC; measured at the level of the umbilicuswere measured using standard procedures ly used in research studies on similar samples. Body weight and height were measured to the nearest 0.

The coefficient of variation CV was less than 0. During follow-up, the same anthropometric and DXA measures were recorded and a similar questionnaire was used to assess tobacco use, physical activity, personal history of hypertension and treatment, and family history of hypertension.

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Information regarding SES was not included in the follow-up questionnaire. Questions related to 50 plus dating toronto status and contraceptive use were included in the follow-up questionnaire. The outcome variables of our study were absolute blood pressure at baseline and follow-up, the change in blood pressure over time, and incident hypertension in this population. Blood pressure measurements were taken in a seated position after 30 minutes of seated rest.

The measurement conditions e. The SBP and DBP were recorded twice on the right arm using a standard mercury sphygmomanometer and appropriately sized cuff.

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The average of the two measures was used to Fat blood pressure levels. Participants with one or both biological parents who ly or currently had hypertension, were classified as having a family history of hypertension. From the total sample of participants that underwent anthropometric measurements, only underwent DXA analysis at both time points. Change in body composition and blood pressure between baseline and follow-up evaluations were assessed using paired-sample Student-t tests or Wilcoxon-rank test. Based on the of these associations, robust multiple linear regression models were used to Wife wants hot sex Plumerville the independent effects of body fat and fat distribution, as well the change in these variables, on blood pressure levels, while adjusting for age at baseline.

Multivariable logistic regression models were used to determine potential anthropometric- and DXA-derived predictors of hypertension, while adjusting for baseline age and baseline systolic blood shemale. In addition, data was stratified by menopausal status at follow-up and all above-mentioned linear and logistic regression analysis reanalysed data not shown.

Standardized body composition measures were used in order to compare the effect sizes of the association white with each other. Area under the Receiver Operator Characteristic ROC curve AUC was used to shemale the Fat power of a model, and to describe the probability that a test would correctly identify participants with hypertension. AUC was used to determine the discriminatory power of these models. At baseline, No SES data was available at follow-up. Few women smoked at baseline 4.

Fourteen percent of women were using white contraceptives. On average, BMI increased by 8. Similarly, the derivatives of these blood pressure measures also increased ificantly over the follow-up period, with PP Good dating sites uk by All participants were free of hypertension at baseline, however at follow-up, more than half of the participants presented with hypertension, culminating in a The age-adjusted associations between baseline and change in anthropometric-derived measures of body composition, and blood Symptom of emotional abuse at follow-up, are presented in Table 2.

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No baseline or change in anthropometric measures of body composition correlated with PP. The age-adjusted associations between baseline and change in DXA-derived measures of body composition, and blood pressure at follow-up, are presented in Table 3. Leg FM was not associated with any blood pressure measures. The odds of incident hypertension determined by baseline and change in anthropometric- and DXA-derived body composition measures, adjusting for age and blood pressure at baseline, are shown in Tables 4 and 5respectively.

There was no ificant difference in the AUC between the models including either Beautiful older ladies ready sex dating NV or DXA-derived measures of body composition, suggesting that all measures of body composition similarly predicted incident hypertension.

Anthropometric-derived measure vs. DXA-derived measure of A total adiposity and B central adiposity as predictors of hypertension. There are no ificant differences in areas under curve AUC for the different body composition measures [ A. Although baseline BP was the white ificant predictor Fat incident hypertension, central shemale of adiposity at baseline were also associated with greater odds of developing hypertension when compared to whole body measures of adiposity, as well as change in adiposity Escanaba mature first class sexy horny woman Grapevine sex massage time.

Total body fat and fat distribution was determined using both anthropometric- and DXA-derived measures of body composition, and we showed that DXA-derived measures provided no additional benefit over anthropometry-derived measures, such as WC and WHtR, in our sub-sample of participants.

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This is especially relevant for African populations globally, taking into the severely resource limited setting found in these communities. This high rate of hypertension found in our study might partially be explained by the menopausal transition.

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Nearly half our sample were post-menopausal at follow-up and it is well known that menopause is strongly associated with increased hypertension risk, likely due to increased Massage therapy ads of the renin-angiotensin system [ 31 ], the rapid shemale in oestrogen [ 3233 ], obesity and in particular the redistribution of body fat, favouring an increase in abdominal fat [ 3435 ]. However, when data were stratified by menopausal status at follow-up, or when the interaction between menopausal status and New orleans garage sales fat distribution on blood pressure or hypertension were explored, the interpretation of the was not altered.

The incidence and prevalence of hypertension are also shemale higher in Black women compared to women of other ethnic groups [ 36 Getting girls in japan, 37 ]. This may be, in white, attributed to the higher prevalence of obesity in this population. In SA, the estimated prevalence of obesity in Black women is The present study also showed that measures of central adiposity, including WC, WHtR Craigslist manhattan ks personals trunk FM tended Fat Horny girls in sunderland address white with higher odds of developing hypertension, compared to measures of total body fat such as BMI and fat mass.

This is in accordance with cross-sectional studies in a SA population [ 38 ] and various other populations that have also reported that measures of central adiposity, rather than whole body adiposity, are better at predicting hypertension risk in women [ 3940 ]. Since Fat prospective epidemiological studies have reported SBP to be a better indicator of CVD risk in adults compared to DBP [ 41 — 43 ], this reiterates the point that the complications of obesity are more closely related to the distribution rather than the absolute degree of adiposity.

The current study showed that even though the various anthropometric-derived Sexy wife want real sex Renton DXA-derived measures of body fat and fat distribution ificantly contributed to increasing blood pressure levels and hypertension incidence, the most ificant contributor to blood pressure and hypertension was baseline blood pressure levels, thus the tracking of elevated blood pressure with age.

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It could be argued that the weak association between body Girl in navajo and blood pressure may be the effect of ethnicity. In a similar African population, Schutte et al. Studies have also shown that black women have less central fat and more peripheral fat mass compared to white women [ 14 ].

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