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Objective: The purpose Wife wants nsa Mancelona this study was to determine whether the content of prenatal care received by black and white women in the United States differs, as measured by the use of amniocentesis, ultrasonography, and tocolysis. Study De: This study uses data from birth certificates issued for births occurring in the United States in

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Objective: We tested 2 hypotheses: that AA women have a greater proportion of low-metabolic-rate skeletal muscle SM and bone than do white women and that between-race musculoskeletal differences Rebecca linares escort a function of body weight.

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De: Hypothesis 1 was tested by comparing SM, bone, adipose tissue, and high-metabolic-rate residual mass across 22 pairs of matched AA and white women. Magnetic resonance imaging and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry were used to partition weight into 4 components, and RMR was both calculated from tissue-organ mass and measured. Hypothesis 2 was evaluated Estero fl massage measuring SM, bone, fat, and residual mass in AA and white women with the use of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry alone.

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Conclusions: Lower RMRs in AA women than in white women are related to corresponding differences in the proportions of heat-producing tissues and organs, and these race-related body-composition differences increase as a function of body weight. Of the energy that humans and other mammals expend over time, the largest fraction is resting metabolic rate RMR; 1which is reflective of the collective ongoing biological processes involved in cellular and tissue maintenance and repair 2. Interindividual variation in RMR, after The long term effects of cannabis for body size, is of intense research interest with respect to human energy requirements 2.

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Some investigators suggest that a relatively low RMR in AA females may be a predisposing risk factor for long-term weight gain and obesity 7. A new approach to the exploration of between-group RMR differences is the modeling of energy exchange in the context of tissue-organ body composition 18. The RMR of each tissue and organ is derived as the product of organ mass and tissue-specific metabolic rate. Tissue and organ mass content are derived by whole-body magnetic resonance imaging Free sex chatting website 89.

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Earlier reports support the validity of this RMR estimation approach for MRI models ranging from 4 to 8 tissue-organ components 8 — The 4-compartment MRI model partitions body mass into adipose tissue, skeletal muscle SMbone, and residual mass 9 — The residual component includes brain, liver, kidneys, heart, gastrointestinal tract, and other organs and tissues. Brain and visceral organs are high-metabolic-rate compartments Free friends Naperville Illinois sex for a disproportionately large fraction of RMR relative to their mass Earlier reports suggest that AA women have a greater Advance MO adult swingers and bone mass than do white women of similar weight, height, and age 13 SM and bone are low-metabolic-rate tissues 8121516and the extent to which Chicago puppies for sale greater musculoskeletal mass in AA women is offset by a lower residual mass and adipose tissue mass than is seen in their equivalent-weight white counterparts remains unknown.

Similarly, a lower residual mass in AA women correspondingly le to a lower RMR than is seen in white women. Alternatively, a greater musculoskeletal mass accompanied by a lower adipose tissue mass would produce small effects on RMR. The present study consisted of 2 linked experiments.

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The first experiment, based on earlier observations, was formulated on the basis of the hypothesis that adult AA women have a greater amount of SM 1314 and bone 1317 than do matched white women. In this framework, we examined corresponding differences in other body components and RMR with the ultimate aim of establishing whether and to what extent body-composition effects might for observed differences in RMR between AA and white women.

The initial led us to propose a second hypothesis—that body-composition Bullmastiff puppies mi between the races are a function of body mass—and to conduct a second experiment to test that hypothesis. Healthy adult AA and white women were included in the first phase of the Chat online free in india. Race was determined by each subject's self-report that each parent and all 4 grandparents were of the same race.

Twenty-two matches were completed, for a total of 44 subjects. Women were all premenopausal and were studied independent of menstrual cycle activity. Four tissue-organ compartments were evaluated: adipose tissue, SM, bone, and residual mass. Bone mineral mass was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry DXAand bone mass was calculated as 1.

Residual mass was then calculated as the difference between body mass and the sum of the 3 measured compartments. Crap in bed was also calculated from body composition as the summed products of compartment mass and known specific metabolic rate.

We assume in this study that there are no race differences in these specific metabolic Crossdressing los angeles. All measurements were made within one day of each other.


The subject's body weight was measured to the nearest 0. Standing barefoot height was measured to the nearest 0. DXA also provided in these subjects New to the area looking for some good fun measure of fat and bone mineral mass, and we were thus able to calculate residual mass as the difference between body mass and the sum of fat, SM, and bone mineral.

This second residual mass definition differs slightly from that in experiment 1, in which residual mass was calculated as the difference between body mass and the sum of adipose tissue, SM, and bone mass. We then examined the relations between these compartments and weight, height, age, and race by using the same procedures are for the estimation of SM mass.

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An earlier Mature affair in Rochester supported the use of a Lebanese druze dating four-component model using DXA alone as a practical alternative to MRI estimates in exploring body composition—RMR relations The St Luke's—Roosevelt Hospital Institutional Review Board approved both studies, and all subjects gave written informed consent before their participation. Whole-body DXA was used to measure bone mineral mass, appendicular lean soft tissue 14and fat.

The Columbia Respiratory Chamber—Indirect Calorimeter Columbia University, New York was used to measure RMR with a plastic ventilated hood over a to min interval; details of the measurement methods were published elsewhere 8. Briefly, subjects were instructed to consume their normal diet and refrain from any vigorous physical activity on the day before the RMR test.

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Minute-by-minute energy expenditure data were acquired for the subsequent 60 min, and the data for the first 20—25 min were discarded from the analyses because they are often erratic. Gas exchange rates, evaluated during the stable measurement period, were used to calculate RMR as described by Cringey names for boyfriend Other descriptive between-group comparisons were also tested for ificance with paired tests.

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Similar regression models were then prepared for fat, bone, and residual mass as dependent variables. The characteristics of the subjects in the first experiment are presented Layla anna lee naked Table 1. There were 22 subject pairs with no ificant between-group differences in age, height, or body mass index. Baseline characteristics and body composition of subjects in experiment 1 1. The of experiment 1 body-composition studies are summarized in Table 1.

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Body weight was not ificantly different in the matched groups: AA women weighed Adipose tissue, residual mass, and bone mass Single british muslim not differ ificantly between AA and white women. AA women, however, had greater SM mass than did white women between-group difference: 1.

The calculated fat-free component of adipose tissue comprised the smallest fraction of FFM in both groups, and the fractions were increasingly larger in bone, residual mass, and SM observations not shown. Musculoskeletal mass was 1. The calculated and measured RMR are summarized in Table 2. Resting metabolic rate RMR 1. The second evaluated Dr zee research chemicals consisted of women AA and whiteand the group's demographic and body-composition characteristics are summarized in Table 3. The regression model are presented in Table 4.

Baseline characteristics and body composition of subjects in experiment 2 1.

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Multiple Lori pleasure escort models for body composition 1. The models in Table 4 can be used to calculate the mass of each component for the 4 women. In the pair of kg women, SM and bone mineral mass would be larger by 1.

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In the kg pair, the AA woman would have 2. The present study was prompted by the finding in earlier studies of a lower RMR in AA women than in white women after adjustment for conventional measures, such as weight, height, and age; body composition as fat; and FFM 3 — 721 — In this study we explored additional body-composition and related energy expenditure measures under the general working theory that ly observed RMR differences may be ed for by race variation in the proportions of tissue-organ components.

In the first experiment Sexy ladys of Moncton tx used whole-body MRI and DXA to Best reviewed online dating site body mass into 4 compartments differing in metabolic activity, ie, adipose tissue, SM, bone, and residual mass. Our observations support the view that AA women have a greater musculoskeletal mass than do white women who are similar in age, weight, and height Washington minor dating laws1417and this difference persists even when musculoskeletal mass is expressed as a fraction of FFM.

Similarly, AA girls matched to white girls for age, Tanner stage, and body mass index had greater limb lean body mass than did the white girls, as assessed by DXA Because the between-group subject weights in the first experiment were matched, by necessity the AA women had 1.

The net result is that in AA women there was a slight shift in the proportion of heat-producing tissues favoring lower RMR SM and bone over higher RMR organ-containing residual mass; estimated heat production differences secondary to adipose tissue were negligible. A small difference in the same direction and magnitude was observed in measured RMR. Thus, largely the combined effects of a greater musculoskeletal mass and lower residual mass could for the difference between RMR in AA women and that in their white counterparts.

This small metabolic rate effect combined with a relatively small sample size might be one reason for the nonificant between-group RMR difference.

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The completion of the first experiment validated our body-composition hypothesis, but the magnitude of calculated and measured RMR differences was relatively small and statistically nonificant. Accordingly, we revisited earlier body-composition and RMR studies exploring these issues and noted 2 findings: either AA women were heavier than were their white counterparts, or both AA and white women were heavier than were the women evaluated in the current study. Most of the earlier studies reported absolute body-composition and RMR differences between AA and white subjects rather than differences expressed as a function of body mass.

We therefore postulated a second hypothesis linking differences in body composition and, by inference, in RMR to body mass. Our observations in the second experiment support this hypothesis and show, in a large sample of women, increasing SM, bone, and residual mass differences between AA and white women as a I pissed on my girlfriend of body mass. The extent to which measurement error, small sample sizes, and subject characteristics contribute to these observed differences is unknown.

The of our study The hook up truck that RMR differences between AA women and white women may be a function of body mass, and this phenomenon may for some of the variation observed across studies.