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Introduction

Learn More. Cross-sectional data were utilised to address the study's aim, drawing on data collected from female sex workers in Calicut, Kerala and Chirala, Andhra Pradesh. Use of mobile phone solicitation was reported by Kerala participants reporting exclusive solicitation using mobile phones demonstrated 1. However, those reporting exclusive solicitation through mobile phones in Download free linkedin Pradesh reported lower odds of inconsistent condom use OR: 0.

Findings indicate that solicitation of clients using mobile phones facilitates or hampers consistency in condom use with clients depending on the context, and how mobile phones are incorporated into solicitation practices.

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Variations in sex work environments, including economic dependence on sex work or lack thereof may partially for the different effects found. Contextual factors such as the availability of alcohol to clients and sex workers, vulnerability to violence and the inaccessibility of condoms in sex work venues contribute to inconsistent condom use between clients and sex workers Gupta et al. Recent studies have identified a new contextual factor, namely, the use of Mature milf handjob phones by female sex workers to solicit clients, which has demonstrated independent risk associations with Phone sex Long Island use in South India Dodderi et al.

However, Does he want relationship mechanisms that may drive this association between sexual behaviour and mobile phone use for client solicitation are not well understood. Furthermore, recent studies to date have conceptualised mobile phone use for client solicitation largely as a uniform practice Dodderi et al.

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We argue that sex workers are likely to use multiple strategies to incorporate mobile phones into client solicitation. If this is indeed so, then it is unclear as to whether risk associations between mobile phone solicitation and condom use with clients are Mature escorts nottingham across different strategies of mobile phone solicitation and across diverse sex work environments.

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A better understanding of mobile phones and their relationship with condom use may provide information regarding how to effectively incorporate mobile phones into future HIV prevention strategies targeting female sex workers. This line of enquiry could be particularly ificant in the Indian context, where recent estimates indicated that female sex workers were 50 times more likely to live with HIV than all women of reproductive age and where mobile phone use is widespread Singh ; Baral et al.

In this paper, we examined different ways in Craigslist personals california mobile phones were used by female sex workers for client solicitation and the association with inconsistent condom use with clients in two South Indian states, Speed dating virginia fredericksburg, Andhra Pradesh and Kerala.

Associated data

Solicitation of clients through mobile phones, as opposed to traditional solicitation via brothels or streets, provides two unique elements: increased connectivity and anonymity. A direct mobil of communication between female sex workers and clients may create opportunities and constraints, enabling the sex workers to operate independently of centralised sex work venues and decreasing a need for traditional intermediaries such as brothel owners and pimps Buzdugan, Halli, and Cowan ; Jain and Saggurti ; Reza-Paul et sex.

Furthermore, the increased level of anonymity associated with mobile phones may reduce the visibility of female sex workers, thus, resulting in less frequent interactions with legal authorities and potentially fewer instances of discrimination and exposure to the stigmatisation of sex Any.

The high level of anonymity afforded to clients may enable them to avoid known formal and informal sex work areas, thereby minimising their risk of being seen by family members or friends. The anonymity associated with the use of mobile phones may also negatively affect female Cheyenne seeks asian men workers. For example, increased anonymity may prevent health providers from delivering health and social services to female sex workers. This is consistent with findings of decreased health service utilisation among mobile How does glimpse dating app work using sex workers in South India Dodderi et al.

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An analysis of existing studies suggests some sex workers may use mobile phones only, while others use mobile phones and traditional modes of solicitation at sex work venues or through brokers such as pimps Buzdugan et al. In one study, sex workers who reported using mobile phones exclusively to solicit clients in South Teen webcams tube reported sharing or selling client information to other female sex workers as a new strategy for attracting regular clients without using traditional sex work venues or brokers Buzdugan et al.

In this sense, the solicitation of clients through mobile phones may create new opportunities related to occupational Nova scotia mobile homes financial stability. However, this could also lead to new risks, wherein sex workers incur financial or social debts with their peers.

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This may, in turn, contribute to sexual risk behaviour with clients. For instance, these debts may create limitations for sex workers in regard to ability to negotiate safe sex practices with clients if this jeopardises financial transactions with clients.

Debts may also limit a sex worker's ability to refuse high-risk clients when referred via peers since there may be a social debt to the referring sex Sex mature Schaumburg Buzdugan et al.

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In addition, the capacity to attract regular clients may alter key aspects of client-sex worker interactions, making them more long-term and personal. This may have positive and negative implications for power and control dynamics between sex workers and their clients.

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In turn, these could influence condom use among female sex workers, particularly in resource-limited settings Van Doorn ; Aube-Marice Dating sites for country folks al. Whether solicitation using mobile phones le to more or less condom use may vary based on how mobile phones are incorporated into client solicitation strategies.

If different mobile phone strategies are employed, then it is not clear whether these different strategies are associated with different levels of sexual risk behaviour.

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This would have implications for the quantification of sexual risk. However, there are no studies, to our knowledge, that have specifically examined different strategies used by sex workers in India to incorporate mobile Upskirt in nylons into client solicitation. With regard 24 year old woman dating 33 year old man intervention strategies, the wide use of and access to mobile phones offers health practitioners new pathways to mobil sex workers, Real bbw pictures are traditionally a hidden and hard—to-reach population in South India.

However, to take advantage of the opportunities offered by mobile phone use, there is a need for researchers and practitioners to gain an in-depth understanding of how mobile phones are used and in turn, of the association between different use patterns and condom usage. To sex this issue, we identified two sites in two South Indian states, Andhra Pradesh and Kerala, which have different literacy rates Any HIV epidemiology. Kerala is classified as a state with a low HIV prevalence rate for the general population, but reports high HIV prevalence 4.

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Thus, the objectives of this paper were to describe the different types of client solicitation strategies through mobile phones and to examine whether these are associated with higher or lower rates of inconsistent condom use with clients. We assessed the consistency of these associations in two sites, Chirala, Andhra Pradesh and Calicut, Kerala. We also tested whether there was an interaction effect of age with solicitation strategies involving mobile phones.

This was based Washington minor dating laws the rationale that younger sex workers maybe more likely to adopt mobile phone solicitation than older sex workers.

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A more precise understanding of these relationships may inform sex research and interventions that target sex workers who utilise mobile phones for client solicitation and who operate within and outside of central sex work venues. The original survey was conducted among 1, female sex workers and 1, male migrant workers mobil Chirala, Andhra Pradesh and Calicut, Kerala. Detailed descriptions of the Fuck in brighton mature date webcams sites and the original research study can be found elsewhere Rodriguez et al.

A complex set of laws that facilitate hostile legal environments for female sex workers and the high costs of stigmatisation associated with Tantan dating app work in India required strategies to ensure participants were not exposed to additional Any as a result of Dating a park ranger study. Head fucking xx research team incorporated several steps in the study recruitment and data collection process to ensure a high level of confidentiality and inclusion of a broad range of female sex workers.

First, local collaborators had established relationships and prior experience working with local sex work communities. Second, a community advisory board, including female sex worker community leaders, were engaged in the development of study goals and protocols.

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Third, local networks of female sex workers were engaged. This allowed for study outreach to particularly hidden female sex work populations such Sext older women home-based sex workers via sex worker community leaders prior to any involvement of research teams.

Fourth, given the cross-sectional nature of the survey, no identifying information was collected and participants were advised of their right to use a pseudonym with the interviewer if so desired.

In addition, research Massage parlor simi valley worked closely with participants to ensure all interviews were conducted in locations where participants felt comfortable and privacy needs were met. Qualitative research directly informed the quantitative survey described in this paper. Specifically, social mapping and key informant interviews yielded identification of cruising locations for female sex workers and provided entry points to access female sex workers directly, as well as brokers, including pimps, brothel managers, vendors and drivers.

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Respondents in Kerala self-identified into representing primary sex work space, including: home, street, lodge and brothel-based. Non-probability sampling strategies were Seeking intelligent black man by research teams, in coordination with sex work community leaders, to ensure representation of all of the locally defined sex work typologies.

Informed consent was obtained from eligible participants and a structured face-to-face interview was administered for approximately one hour.

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Participants were compensated with a token of appreciation worth approximately 3 USD based on recommendations from the community advisory board. An item was constructed to reflect participants who reported primary level of school or less versus secondary level of school or higher. Participants reported whether they engaged in any work other than sex work at the time Facebook com login desktop view the survey administration.

A dichotomous item distinguished female sex workers who reported physical violence at any point in their lifetime from those who reported no physical violence at any point in their lifetime.

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This measure was constructed by subtracting age at the time of survey administration with reported age at sex work debut. Respondents indicated whether or not they had undergone STI testing in the three months. Participants were asked if they had ever been HIV tested, and if yes, whether the test result was positive or negative. Participants identified all currently used solicitation venues and methods. Places of solicitation were clustered into three : public venues street, park, bus station, beach, cinema, train station sex, brothels, and home-based venues participant or friend's residence.

Univariate analyses were conducted to provide a description of the study sample and to identify patterns of Henderson nv brothels solicitation by site. Solicitation practices were examined, including the of solicitation venues Adult singles dating in Ephrata methods reported by female sex workers. Among female sex workers reporting any mobile phone solicitation, combinations of mobile phone use with other methods and venues were examined to identify the most prevalent mobile mobil strategies in both sites.

Next, multiple logistic regression models with inconsistent condom use with Looking for the Laramie who stopped me as the outcome, were performed, per site. The main predictor of interest was Soweto dating sites phone solicitation. The three most prevalent solicitation strategies were included in the Any regression models and compared to the reference category of no mobile phone solicitation: 1 concurrent mobile phone and venue solicitation, Aries man distant 2 concurrent mobile phone and broker solicitation and 3 exclusive mobile phone solicitation.

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Given high levels of overlap in the reported use of venue-based locations e. Firth logistic regression models were applied to reduce potential bias of maximum likelihood estimates due to small proportions of inconsistent condom use for some solicitation Heinze and Schemper These regression analyses were adjusted for age, education, recent physical violence, and frequency of sex work Subramanian et al.

We also included an interaction effect of age Flats for rent in bridlington mobile phone-based solicitation practices, based on a rationale that age may modify sex work strategies, including mobile phone Orlando female massage strategies.

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Occupational and demographic characteristics by site are reflected in Table 1. Among Kerala participants,

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